What Is IoT (Internet Of Things)?

iot internet of things

We are going through a digital revolution. In our day to day, life computers have become an essential accessory. Be it the simple one like the smartphone you use or the navigation system in your car. We have become dependent on them. Normally we give some input, the computer processes it and gives an output. But in IoT, the computer does not need human-machine or human-human interaction for every data it transfers.

What is IoT?

You must be thinking of what actually is IoT? It is a network of digital appliances such as computers, laptops, etc. connected together to impart data sharing between them. IoT does not require any kind of human to machine or machine to machine interaction for its fulfillment. All the devices which are connected to this technology are gifted with UIDs. An MIT graduate named Kevin Ashton first coined this term in his project. In the year 1999, he worked on a project named Gamble and Procter, which used RFIDs to identify the culprits.

How does IOT work?

There is a sure way in which IoT works. IoT is mainly blended with three parts :

  1. Sensor: This part consists of the primary input. To understand in simpler words, it is the part that the machine notices, e.g., when your car notifies you about the low amount of fuel in the tank, the part that notices the small amount of fuel is the sensor.
  2. Processor: It is the part that works like a brain and processes the data. The processor takes the data from the sensor and processes what the output should be. E.g., it is the part that makes the data like the amount of petrol in the tank sensed by the sensor and decides if it should notify you.
  3. Actuator: Now, these are the part that executes the output. It takes the instructions from the processor and acts likewise. E.g., the indicator light that notifies you about the low level of fuel is the actuator.

Scope of IoT

Day by day we are becoming more and more dependent on the machine. With the advancement of software development and the internet, it is becoming more and more common. And to think more wisely, wouldn’t it be cool if your car can interact with your house and tell it to warm up before you reach home or drive you to the fuckbuddy that you met on Free Meet N’ Fuck. The future of other technology interacting with dating applications or other services we use is interesting. Imagine if your umbrella gets the weather forecast and beeps itself to remind you about keeping it with you? There are billions of items or machines or software available for IoT. It has its application in every kind of industry. It is becoming easier to use with easily accessible WIFI networks. With some simple things, anyone can use IoT. You just need:

  • A sensor to detect input time to time
  • Software to look at the sensor data and process decisions
  • A software to manage the operation of a device which includes more than one sensor
  • And an internet connection to transmit and receive data.

With the increase in these things, the day is not away when IOT is going to be everywhere. Which also raises concerns about IOT cybersecurity. We will save this for another article, but it is a whole new area to consider. …

The Workings Of Fiber Optic Internet

The upcoming future of the broadband is fiber optic internet. In the recent days it utilizes the technology of fiber optic for reaching the fastest speeds which is as fast as ten thousand Mbps. Having a broadband became compulsory to the present modern world that we are living in. This internet is siding away the rivals from its place. Fiber optic internet is a form of fiber optic communications. When you send a light beam through the glass cables of fiber optic, you can be capable to transport the data through it which is actually a process that is fascinating.

How Fiber Optic Internet Operates

The cables of fiber are made up of little optical fibers. These fibers made seems to be thin and are less than a tenth as a human hair thickness. Although they are thin, they might have many things going on inside them. Every optical fiber consists of two parts one is core other is cladding.

  • The core is actually made with glass and it is the fiber innermost part where the light usually through it.
  • Another one is cladding which is plastic or glass with thicker layer. It is wrapped around the core.

These both of the parts work as one for making a phenomenon known as total internal reflection. This total internal reflection is the way how the light is capable to move through the fibers without escaping from them. This happens when the light hits the glass at shallow angle which is lower than forty-two degrees and reflects back again like the reflection that happens against a mirror. The part cladding keeps the light inside the core as the plastic or glass is created with a different lower refractive index or optical density. Two of these terms clearly shows how the part of the glass bends and slows down the passing light.

The light is transmitted down to the fiber in LED or Laser pulses which travel in a fast way. These created pulses carry the data which is binary, this is the system of coding we find on the internet. The code of binary is created of bits which are just zeroes or ones. These code bits send the message in the eight-part patterns which are organized known as bytes. It is simple to translate this binary code bits into the pulses of light. One pulse means it is one and no pulse means it is zero. These optic pulses of light can travel for about sixty miles even before they experience any kind of degradation. For transporting the information across miles of thousands these light pulses go through the optical amplifiers that keeps boosting their signal such that no information is lost or stolen.

Once the light pulses reach their destination, an optical network terminal will convert these pulses into Ethernet which is electrical. This is the way how light is going to turn into something you can utilize for connecting your devices to the internet. This kind of conversion only occurs at the last mile end which is not at all a mile but known as a term for the fiber last stretch which connects you to the Internet backbone.

The internet backbone is what it makes it possible for the individual around the globe for connecting through the web. This is mostly created of fiber optic cables. This fiber optic internet might seem to the customers like a brand type of new technology. Yet it is around many internet early days in the world. These fiber optic cables were present under the ocean for connecting it the Europe and US in the year 1988. These were the first lines of submarine to be laid and at present they are extended in a crisscross way in the entirety of the floor of the ocean.

The core of the internet is the backbone. The minute you connect to a site no matter the destination or the device, several steps are being taken to bring you at that point and each one of them is connected through the backbone of the internet.…

What is the Dark Web?

The dark web is nothing but one of the parts on internet that are actually not indexed by the search engines. The dark web is considered to be the hotbed for criminal activities. In recent years Dark Web has become worse and there are many Dark Web listings that are said to harm an enterprise.

Here it is possible to buy all kinds of drugs, credit card numbers, and guns, stolen credentials for subscriptions, counterfeit money, and even hacked accounts of Netflix. There is software available that helps in breaking into some computer. There is a different price for different items. For example, login credentials may be available for a bank account is available for $500.

But everything here is not illegal. There is a legitimate side to this dark web. There are BlackBook and chess club for which you can become member.

Tools which are at risk

  • Attacks or infections that include even malware, botnets, and even DDoS
  • Access that includes exploits, keyloggers, and even RATs or remote access Trojans
  • Espionage that also includes services, targeting, and customization
  • Tutorials and many other support services
  • Refunds
  • Phishing
  • Credentials
  • Operational data
  • Customer data
  • Financial data
  • Trade secrets and intellectual properties
  • Other emerging threats

There are three risk variables for each of these 12 categories. They are:

  • Enterprise devaluing- this may include undermining the reputational damage, brand trust, and even losing the actual ground to some competitor
  • The next thing can be disrupting the enterprise. This may include malware attacks, DDoS attacks that affect the actual business operations
  • Another most important risk is defrauding the actual enterprise. This usually includes Espionage, IP theft that may impair the actual ability of an enterprise and result in heavy financial loss. Adult dating/hookup sites like https://localsexfinder.app are often targets of this as sexfinder sites are often easy targets for those with malicious intent.

Browser and dark web

All the activities mentioned above and looking at the bustling marketplace may make you think that it is easy to navigate through the dark web. But it is not true. This place is more chaotic and messy than you expect. The many reasons are it looks more anonymous when you are surrounded by people whom you don’t know.

It is very important to use the anonymous browser when you are accessing the dark web. The majority of people make use of Tor. This browser will route the actual request through many proxy servers that are operated via many volunteers all over the world. This helps in making the IP address difficult to identify. It is really hard to trace the IP address. Tor actually works like some magic. But the result is actually maddeningly slow, and unbelievable, and unpredictable.

Search engine

There is a search engine called a dark web search engine. But it is really hard to keep up with the landscape which is constantly shifting. There is the best search engine known as Grams. But even this results in repetitive results. In some cases even Grams result in irrelevant results. There is one more option called The Hidden Wiki that is nothing but Link lists. But even the indices sometimes result in timed-out connections that are really frustrating.

Dark web sites

This looks very much like any other site. But there are some differences mainly the naming structure. General sites end with .co, or .com but the dark web sites usually end in .onion. this represents anonymous and hidden service. The service can be reached through a Tor network. It is possible to reach out to these sites when the user has appropriate proxy in their browsers.

There is one more difference between dark web sites and other sites. That is scrambled naming is used by these dark web sites. This is the reason URLs of dark web sites are challenging to remember. For example, ‘eajwlvm3z2lcca76.onion is the unintelligence address used by the commerce site known as Dream Market.

The majority of the dark web sites are usually set up scammers. Scammers who frequently move around do this and it helps them in avoiding the wrath related to their victims. There is chance that very popular commerce sites which have existed for years may disappear suddenly. This happens if the owners decide for cash in and they flee.

But best thing officials of law enforcement are getting better day by day in prosecuting and finding the owners of these sites that sell services and goods. A few years back, the site called AlphaBay was made to shut down by a team of cybercops from 3 major countries. This was the major source of dark web for contraband that was sending shudders all over the network.

Tor is highly vulnerable and it comes with anonymous nature. It is vulnerable mainly to DDoS that is distributed denial of service attacks. This is the reason sites are changing their address constantly for avoiding DDoS. This results in a highly dynamic environment. …

History and Timeline of the Internet

Since the time it was founded the world wide web has touched the lives of a lot of people around the world and changed the way in which we connect with others as well as the nature of our work. Through the internet we are able to discover share and the nature of our work. The internet basically has become an integral part of the modern society. The internet as we know it today wasn’t always like that. The internet has evolved from simple computer networks to global interconnectivity networks and instantaneous wireless communication. The rapid and dramatic evolution of the internet has helped us understand the changing nature of technology and communications.

1960’s

The internet never existed even after the invention of the computer until much later in the 1960s. in 1962, computer scientist at MIT came up with the idea of a global computer network. He shared his idea with his colleagues at the us department of research and technology. They are the pioneers of the first ARPANET which is the present world wide web. It was the first real network that run on packet switching technology. Computers at UCLA and Stanford were the first to be connected to the internet. They were the first host on what came to be the internet. The first message that was ever sent through the network was Login however it crushed at the letter G.

Another major milestone is the that was experienced during the 1960s, was the inception of Unix. It was an operating system whose design heavily influenced that of Linux and Free USB. (The operating system that is very popular in today’s web servers.

1970’s

Arpanet was fully developed and operation in 1970 and it was established through the corporation of Harvard, MIT and BBN which is the company that created the first interface message processor. The computers used to connect to the network in 1970.

Ray Tomlinson developed the email in 1971 and is responsible for the decision to use the @ symbol to separate the user name from the computer name. it later came to be known as the domain.

One of the most impressive developments back in 1971 was the initiation of project Gutenberg. For those who are not familiar with the site, it refers to a global effort that is aimed at making books and documents electronically available for free in a variety of eBook and electronic formats. It started with Michael Hart gaining access to a large block of computing time and came to the realization that the future of computers wasn’t in computing itself but rather in storage, retrieval and searching of information that at that time was only available in libraries. He manually typed the Declaration of Independence and made the information available electronically and this was the birth of eBooks.

France started its own system very similar to Arpanet known as the CYCLADE. It was shut down eventually however it did pioneer a key idea. The host data should be responsible for data transmission rather than the network itself.

Arpanet made its first transatlantic connection in 1973 with the university college of London. During the same year the number of emails accounted for 75% of all Arpanet network Activity.
1974 was the breakthrough of the internet transfer protocol. There was a proposal which was aimed at linking Arpa-like networks together into what is inter-network and it would have a central control and would work around a transmission control protocol. It eventually came to be known as TCP/IP.

With the ever-increasing popularity of emailing, the first modern email program in 1975 by John Vittal who was a programmer at the University of Southern California. The biggest advancement in the technology was the addition of the reply and forward feature.

1977 was a very big year during the development of the internet. It is the year that the first PC modems that were developed by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington were introduced and initially sold to computer hobbyists.

The first bulletin board system was developed back in 1978 during a blizzard in Chicago. It is also the year that the first unsolicited commercial email messages were sent to 600 California Arpanet users by Gary Thuerk.

The beginning of the world of warcraft and second life started back in 1979 with the development of multi user dungeon. They were entirely text based virtual worlds that combined the elements of role-playing games, fiction and online chat.

It was ushered into the scene back in 1979 by two graduate students. Usenet was an internet-based discussion system that allowed people from around the world to converse about the same topics by posting public messages categorized by news groups.

1980’s

The European Organization for Nuclear Research launched ENQUIRE which is a hypertext program that allowed scientist at the particle physics lab to keep track of people, software and projects using hypertext.

Arpanet computers switched to TCP/IP which was developed by Vinton Cerf and it affected a few hundred computers. This marked the birth of the name server which was developed in 1973. The domain name system was also developed in the 1980s and it was important in that it made the addresses on the internet more human friendly. By the year 1987 there were nearly 30,000 hosts on the internet. The original Arpanet protocol had been limited to around 100 hosts however the adoption of the TCP/IP made large number hosts very possible.

1990’s

The first commercial dial-up Internet provider came to existence and it is the same year that Arpanet ceased to exist. The codes for the world wide web was written along with the standards for html, HTTP and URL’s. The first web page was created during this year and it explained what the world wide web was. It was during the 1990s that the first MP3, webcams, content-based search protocol, first graphical web browser and the first governments to join in on the fun of the internet. It was the same decade that the first new story was broken on the internet rather than traditional media and the birth of Google.…